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Forest Trees

Sacred Botanicals

The Rund Woodlands is home to  diverse mix of plant life and vegetation.  Below is a work in progress, to identify and log the species that make up the Woodlands.  

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English Lavender

Lavandula angustifolia, Also known as: Garden lavender, Narrow-leaved lavender

The english lavender is a common flowering plant originally native to the Mediterranean region. Today, it is often used in scented products such as candles, oils, perfumes, soaps, and house sprays. The scent also has a deterrent effect against clothing moths.

English lavender 


Lavender originates from the Old French, lavendre and it also may be originated from the latin word, lividus meaning blue since the plant is featured with blue flowers. As the name carries the word "English", it is not originated from England. It is actually originated from the Mediterranean but the English lavender is the most commonly used name.

Symbolism - Wait for love, purity, serenity, devotion

Other Uses - Common lavender essential oil can perfume the body, relieve pressure and regulate facial oil secretion.

Garden Use - English lavender is most commonly planted in clusters for ornamental effect. Popular in herb and wildflower gardens, it is appreciated for its beauty as well as its sweet aroma. Some gardeners plant it in order to harvest the leaves and flowers and utilize their aromatic properties. Good companion plantings include Echinacea, Aster, and Sedum varieties.


Nephrolepis exaltata, Also known as: Fishbone fern, Boston swordfern, The Nephrolepis exaltata is commonly known as the boston fern or sword fern.


It is a common and popular houseplant that is native to tropical environments. While the boston fern can survive droughts, it prefers humid environments and should be misted regularly. It is generally considered non-toxic and is pet friendly.

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When you observed the leaves carefully, you will notice that the leaves are gradually getting narrow from the aerial root to the top, like a sword. So, it is called swordfern. As for Boston, it was shipped from Philadelphia in 1984 to Boston and that was when the plant started to transform. The straightened leaves become elegant, and because of the transportation, it is called Boston swordfern.

Symbolism - sincerity, there are fairies living nearby

Garden Use - Boston fern is a common houseplant with indoor use year-round and outdoor use during spring and summertime. It is prized for its large size and beautiful foliage, making it a perfect accent plant for shaded porches or hanging baskets. Ensure your plant is given sufficient moisture and humidity for the healthiest look. Protect from frost and move indoors when there is a chance of cold temperatures.

Mouse-Ear Chickweed

Cerastium tomentosum

Also known as: Snow-In-Summer, Jerusalem star, Wooly mouse-ear chickweed. 

A beautiful and easy to grow ground cover, snow-in-summer or Cerastium tomentosum makes for a great addition to your yard. Silvery gray mounds of foliage yield prolific white flowers, so much so that each mound looks like a pile of snow. This member of the carnation family is drought and deer resistant.

Snow-in-summer is also known as Cerastium tomentosum. It gets its common name from the prolific white blooms that look like blankets of snow in the summer. The genus name, cerastium, is related to the Greek word, keras. Keras means horn. The seed capsules in this genus are typically shaped like a cow’s horn, giving the genus its name. On the other hand, the specific epithet, tomentosum, is related to the word tomentose, which describes the felt-like, hairy foliage.

Symbolism - Beautiful, social, bright.

Garden Use - Snow-in-summer is low-growing and thus often used for an attractive ground cover, particularly because of its brilliant white flowers produced in late spring. The tight clusters of flowers rise above the narrow evergreen leaves, creating a carpet of snow-like blooms that are ideal for a border along pathways or in front of other planting areas.

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Lavender Cotton

Antolina Chamaecyparissus, Also known as: Cypress Lavender Cotton, Grey santolina

Cotton lavender is a plant species native to the western and central Mediterranean region. The leaves and stems of cotton lavender can be used in the production of perfume and insect repellent. The scientific name, Santolina chamaecyparissus, means "like ground cypress," due to the plant's appearance, but the species is not genetically related to cypress.

Lavender cotton

The specific epithet chamaecyparissus means "like Chamaecyparis", though it is not closely related to ground cypress. It is also not closely related to either cotton or lavender, despite its common name Lavender cotton. 

Symbolism - Peace

Garden Use - Cotton lavender is a beautiful evergreen perennial (sometimes annual) considered essential in Mediterranean gardens. Its dense and silvery foliage makes a wonderful groundcover, border plant, or accent piece for showier flowers. Cotton lavender is very suitable for rock gardens, pathways, or anywhere with a little too much green. It pairs great with Mediterranean herbs, such as lavender, thyme, and rosemary.


Mentha pulegium, Also known as: Mosquito plant, Pudding grass, English pennyroyal, True pennyroyal.  Pennyroyal is a crawling perennial native to the Middle East, Europe, and North Africa. During summer, tiny fragrant lilac blooms appear in swirls. This plant flourishes in flooded or damp places such as seeps, stream sides, and marshes.

Symbolism - Strength, Protection Peace. Seen as a majestic and noble plant, it is used to improve ones own status and stature.

Garden Use - Pennyroyal produces small flowers in late fall that attract bees and other pollinator insects to pollinator-friendly gardens. The flowers are also fragrant, and both the blossoms and foliage are appreciated when planted at the edges of gardens. In addition, the dry flowers can be used in herbal sachets.

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Wild Carrot

Daucus Carota, also known as: Queen Anne's Lace, Bird's nest. The wild carrot is a common flowering plant with light, delicate flowers. Originally native to Europe and Asia, it has also spread to North America and Australia. Studies of historical paintings suggest that the wild carrot was cultivated in Turkey, Spain, and North Africa for centuries.

Many scholars believe that it is the ancestor of all hybrid carrots. The specific epithet, "carota" is derived from the Greek word, karôton meaning carrot. As it is often grown in the wild, so it is called wild carrot.

This kind of flower looks similar to Queen Anne's lace, which is one of the prestigious clothing accessories. The red flower in the centre is thought to represent a blood droplet in which Queen Anne accidentally pricked herself with a needle while making the lace. Hence, it is called Queen Anne's lace.

Symbolism - Wisdom, purity, sanctuary

Garden Use - The wild carrot can be kept in gardens and beds. It is ideally grown in vegetable gardens and prized for its edible carrots. The wild carrot has many uses in a large vegetable garden, as it is said to improve Tomato plant production and be good for the climate and soil surrounding Lettuce plants.

Common Vetch

Vicia sativa, Also known as: Summer vetch

Common vetch (Vicia sativa) is an annual herb plant also commonly called vetch, tare, and garden vetch. It is often considered a weed, but is also utilized for manure and animal feed for livestock across the world. When grown for agricultural purposes, it is sown in dense fields.

Vicia is a genus of roughly 140 species of flowering plants that are part of the legume family which are commonly known as vetches. Although it is considered a weed when found growing in a cultivated grainfield, this hardy plant is often grown as green manure or livestock fodder. Moreover, it is also one of the most common plant in the genus, so it is called common vetch. 

Symbolism - Vice


Garden Use 

Although widely grown as a forage crop, common vetch is often considered a weed in a garden setting. Still, it has valuable properties in the garden - its nitrogen-fixing ability enriches the soil, and it offers food and support for native wildlife. Also, the vine-like growth, feathery foliage, and purple flowers can be visually attractive. Thus, common vetch is ideal for including (or just leaving it be) in native gardens, wildlife gardens, and wildlife meadows.

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Hairy Vetch

Vicia villosa, Also known as: Winter Vetch.  Hairy vetch is often grown as a cover crop, or to provide forage or fodder for animals. However, use caution when planting and check your local regulations, as this plant is considered an invasive species in many states in the U.S. and several other countries.

Hairy vetch is a plant native to some parts of Europe and western Asia. It is a legume and it is grown as a forage crop, fodder crop, cover crop, and green manure. As the stem is featured with hair, it is called hairy vetch.


Symbolism - I Cling To Thee, Shyness


Garden Use - One of the best uses of hairy vetch is planting it as a green manure crop to add nutrients to the soil for a vegetable garden. This plant fixes nitrogen from the air, making this crucial plant nutrient available to other crops after the hairy vetch is cut and tilled into the soil. The dense foliage also adds considerable amounts of organic matter to the ground when it is used as green manure.

Yellow Shamrock

Trifolium dubium, Also known as: Little hop clover, Yellow Shamrock, Lesser hop trefoil. 

Lesser trefoil (Trifolium dubium) is a species of clover. It natives to Europe and Southwest Asia, and has introduced to many parts of the world as a pasture. This plant is considered to be the prototype of the traditional Irish shamrock symbol.


Although considered to be an original shamrock plant, lesser trefoil still carries an epithet 'lesser' which indicates its inferiority to other clover species, but it's unclear why it's considered 'lesser'.

Symbolism - Good fortune and luck

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Red Clover

Red clover, Trifolium pratense, Also known as: Purple clover. Red clover is widely cultivated as a fodder plant and green manure because its roots can fix nitrogen and increase the fertility of the soil. The cultivated red clover is inevitably escaped and is now naturalized globally including the United States and Australia. Its flowers are attractive so it is cultivated as an ornamental plant as well.

This plant comes with many utilities. Despite the utilities, it is one of the oldest and original clovers in history. Moreover, the flowers are red-colored and it is Denmark's national flower. Considering the color and the number of leaves, it is commonly called red clover.

Symbolism - Prayer, hope, romance


Beauty Improvement Value - Professional medical extraction of red clovers has anti-aging effects.

Garden Use - Red clover can be used as an attractive groundcover in yards and parks due to its colorful blooms and low, dense growth pattern. As a nitrogen-fixing plant, its presence improves soil quality and gardeners may add it to areas that need enrichment. It is a good companion planting in vegetable gardens, particularly for legumes.

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Garden Sorrel

Rumex acetosella, Also known as: Common sheep sorrel Field sorrel. Garden sorrel (Rumex acetosella) is a flowering plant related to buckwheat. It can be found in acidic soil and tends to grow outside abandoned mines where other plants can't take hold. Farmers will often consider garden sorrel a weed; it is a particular problem for blueberry crops.


The plant is featured with green arrowhead-shaped leaves and red-tinted ridged stems and it sprouts from an aggressive spreading rhizome. Furthermore, this plant is related to other highly acidic plants from the Rumex genus. This plant is called common sheep sorrel because it typically grows where sheep roam.


Symbolism - Patience

Creeping Thistle

Cirsium Arvense, Also known as: Field thistle.  This aggressive weed spreads across grasslands and fields via underground roots that creep horizontally, some for more than 5 m. It can cause major problems to agriculture if its growth is left unchecked. Its seeds feed many birds as well as pest insects. Creeping thistle is generally considered a noxious weed even in its native territory. 


It is interesting to know that the name is not related to Canada at all. Since this misleading name has stuck with the plant from the beginning, till this day, this name is still widely used in the United States.

Symbolism - Strength, Protection, overcoming adversity, pride


Garden Use - Creeping thistle has a weedy, invasive nature and is not recommended to grow in gardens. It is an aggressive grower and will smother and readily replace nearby plant life. The flowers attract bees and pollinators but tend to do more harm than good to the environment.

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Tansy Ragwort

Jacobaea Vulgaris, Also known as: Stinking willie, St. James-wort. Tansy ragwort is a biennial that is classified in many areas of the United States as a noxious weed. The tansy ragwort is poisonous to livestock, pets, and humans. This plant is found in sunny open areas like pastures and meadows. It has bright yellow flowers and grows 61 - 122 cm tall.


The word ragwort probably refers to the ragged form of the leaves. In 1597, Herarde wrote in his Herbal note: "The country people call it ragworte ... also ragwoort ... it groweth everywhere in untilled pastures and fields". Since it is very commonly seen, it is called common ragwort. Also, it is very similar to tansy in appearance, it is called Tansy ragwort as well.

Symbolism - Protection, the fae realm

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Purple Dead-Nettle

Lamium purpureum, Purple dead-nettle (Lamium purpureum) is an herbaceous annual weed, commonly found in meadows, wastes, gardens, and at the edges of roads and woodlands. Though it appears similar to true nettles, purple dead-nettle gets its name because it does not have "live" nettle poison that harms the skin. It originated in Asia and prefers environments with full sun.


Though it is similar to species of Urtica (true nettles) in appearance, it is not related to Urtica and does not sting. As the flowers are purple in color, the name is called purple dead-nettle.

Purple archangel In some places, it’s known as the purple archangel. It is because it blooms around the Feast of the Apparition on May 8, which was when St. Michael, the archangel appeared as an onlooker at Mount Gargano in sixth-century in Italy.

Symbolism - Confidence, courage, happiness, graceful persistence, clear thinking, emotional balance

Field Forget-Me-Not

Myosotis arvensis, Field forget-me-not (Myosotis arvensis) is an annual plant species that grows in open areas, fields, pastures and roadsides. Field forget-me-not is often considered a weed by farmers and gardeners. This species thrives in full sun and partial shade. This species spreads through small hairs that attach to animal fur and people's clothing. The hairs are then transported to different locations where they can potentially sprout.


The Genus name, myosotis, is from the Latin word which means a plant with leaves like mouse ears and refers to all types of plants known as forget me nots. The specific epithet, arvensis, refers to being grown in in cultivated fields. So Myosotis arvensis is a plant with mouse-like ears that grows in fields. In other words, it is a weedy version of the forget me not.

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Symbolism - Hope, remembrance, true and undying love


Garden Use - Field forget-me-not can adorn gardens with its rosette foliage and pretty blue or pink blooms through the summer and sometimes autumn. Its colors can be used to enlighten borders and edges. Field forget-me-not works best for wildflower gardens and meadows.

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Wavy Bittercress

Cardamine flexuosa, This is a small flowering plant in the cabbage family. It grows to a height of no more than 30 cm. The flowers are very small and white. In certain areas of India the wavy bittercress is eaten or used as a garnish.


Symbolism - Ardor, Parental Ardor; Paternal Error

Toughleaf Iris

Iris tenax, Also known as: Oregon Flag, Klamath iris, Tough-leaved iris.  Toughleaf iris (Iris tenax) is a perennial evergreen plant that grows in clumps and blooms in spring with pale-lavender to violet-blue flowers. Thrives in full sun to partial shade and is drought-tolerant once established. Flowers attract butterflies and bees. Resistant to aphids rabbits and deer.


Symbolism - Faith, Valour, Wisdom

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Columbia Lily

Lilium columbianum, Also known as: Tiger lily, Columbian Lily

Columbia lily (Lilium columbianum) is a lily native to Western North America with a habitat that stretches from Canada down to Northern California. In the wild, you'll come across it in open woodland. If you're cultivating it, plant it in moist soil that's well-drained in the late autumn.


Symbolism - Protection, Breaking love spells. It is used to symbolize Danger, Caution and deadly beauty. Yellow: I'm walking on air. Gaiety white: Sweetness, Purity tiger: Wealth, pride Orange: Wealth Calla: Beauty day


Centaurea cyanus, Also known as: Garden cornflower, Bluebottle. 


Centaurea cyanus is known by several names, like cornflower and bachelor’s button. This flower has a beautiful blue color that was a favorite of famed Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer. Today it is a Crayola crayon color as well as an HTML color name. The color is defined as a medium to light blue that contains very little green.


The bachelor button is actually a flower that has a story behind it. This flower is generally worn when they have feelings for a certain person that they are trying to date. They would wear the flower and the longer that the flower lasted, the greater the presence of true love between the. If the flower wilts and dies, it isn’t meant to be.

Cornflower, In the past, it was often grown as a grass weed in cornfields where the field covers the plantation of wheat, barley, rye or oats. Hence, it gets the name, cornflower. 

Image by Lucy Kral

Symbolism - Being Single, Hope in love, Refinement


Garden Use - Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) is a sun-loving garden favorite that produces showy blue flowers that look particularly attractive in combination with red poppies. This plant looks great in beds and borders, cottage gardens, and containers. Another asset of cornflower is that it attracts birds and butterflies.


Common Centaury

Centaurium erythraea, Also known as: Centaury

Common centaury or Centaurium erythraea is an easy-to-grow wildflower originally from Europe. This little annual or biennial grows low to the ground and has pinkish, 5-petaled blooms with bright yellow stamens.

Symbolism - Snake removing


Garden Use - The small stature, hardiness, and attractive pink flowers of common centaury make this plant a pleasant addition to wildlife gardens, meadowlands, and dry grasslands. Some people plant common centaury in herbal gardens because of its aromatic, bitter qualities, which are used as an ingredient in vermouth.

Nootka Rose

Rosa nutkana, Also known as: Bristly rose, Spalding's rose. Nootka rose is a plant species with the Latin name “Nutkana” which refers to Nootka Sound, a west coast of Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada. This waterway got its name from a tribe that once inhabited the area. This species is also called “Bristly Rose.”


Symbolism - Love, Psychic Powers Healing


Garden Use - Nootka rose has full, green foliage that makes it a good hedge or ground cover plant. It's perfect for either dry or moist woodland, coastal, or wildlife gardens. It's ornamental for most of the year, except winter. The bright fall berries draw in birds and the showy summer flowers attract both butterflies and birds. Unfortunately, deer and rabbits also like this plant.

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Rhododendron catawbiense, Also known as: Catawba Rosebay, Mountain rosebay, Purple rhododendron.  The catawba rosebay is usually cultivated in North America and Europe as an ornamental plant. The Rhododendron catawbiense generally grows up to 3 m tall, but can occasionally reach heights of 5 m. In the United States, the catawba rosebay is often found in the Appalachian Mountains.

The specific epithet, 'catawbiense' refers to the Catawba River. It is formerly used by the Catawba Indians to travel between the mountains of North Carolina and the Piedmont region of the Carolinas. This species was found on this river in 1809 by John Fraser, so it is called Catawba rosebay.

Symbolism - Danger, Beware, I am dangerous


Garden Use - Catawba rosebay (Rhododendron catawbiense) is a popular ornamental rhododendron loved for its evergreen leaves and showy purple-pink flowers which bloom in abundance. These colors complement plants like hollies, hydrangeas, and bleeding hearts. This spreading shrub makes an excellent addition to beds and borders in informal and cottage gardens, attracting hummingbirds and butterflies.

Pacific Poison Oak

Toxicodendron diversilobum, Also known as: Poison oak

Pacific poison oak is a woody vine or shrub found in the Western United States. Try to avoid this plant when hiking or camping, as the leaves and stem have a surface oil that causes an allergic skin reaction in 4 out of 5 people. A good reminder when it comes to pacific poison oak is “Leaves of three, let it be.”

Pacific poison oak belongs to a genus of plants well known to cause severe skin infections after direct contact.

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Toxicodendron means “poison tree” while diversilobum means “different lobes” which is probably referring to its irregularly lobed leaflets that resemble oak leaves. Since it is widely distributed in western regions of North America, it is called pacific poison oak or western poison oak.

Symbolism - Protection, Health, Money


Highly Toxic to Humans, The leaves and twigs of pacific poison oak contain a toxic chemical that causes a mild to moderate allergic reaction upon physical contact in approximately 80% of people. Poisoning is most likely to occur from accidental contact with the plant.

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Wisteria sinensis, Also known as: Purple wisteria, Wisteria.  Chinese wisteria (Wisteria sinensis) is a common ornamental vine in temperate regions, known for its rich, pendulous clusters of purple flowers. The flowers are very fragrant and have a scent similar to grapes. This plant is a beautiful addition to your spring garden, but be aware - all parts of chinese wisteria are toxic when ingested.


This plant climbs and spreads by winding counterclockwise. Its flowers hang on branches like animal tails. It is native to China. sinensis means that it is associated with China. Wisteria is called Chinese wisteria in memory of Dr. Caspar Wistar.

The name, purple is given not only because some of its species have purple flowers, but also because its flowers have a similar aroma to grapes. After all, people always associate purple with purple grapes, so it is called purple wisteria.

Symbolism - Live for love, fertility, long life, devotion, creativity

Artistic Value - There are many literary works that speak highly of Chinese wisteria.

Environmental Protection Value - Chinese wisteria has strong resistance to harmful gasses such as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen oxide.


Garden Use - Chinese wisteria is good for planting by pools, rockery and other places. It is one of the most common of the nine species of wisteria. It is an important part of gardens looking for a thick, quick coverage, as its vines grow and spread rapidly, doing well across sturdy trellises and rockery. It is used to create privacy for gardens and pools because of its dense growth and heavy blooms, which also perfume the surrounding area. It does well with rock gardens and is often planted with large trees which can support its vines and help its growth.

Japanese Barberry

Berberis thunbergii, colloquially known as japanese barberry, is a flowering deciduous shrub commonly cultivated as an ornamental plant. Berberis thunbergii f. atropurpurea is the most popular cultivar of this species, known for its characteristic dark red to violet foliage and bright red berries.


This plant used to be a very popular shrub. The light yellow flowers that sprout during spring and bright red fruits in autumn were the reasons why it was widely planted. However, it has now become least wanted. Also, Berberis is the Arabic name for the Barberry fruit. As he is also a plant native to Japan, he is called Japanese barberry.

Symbolism - atonement, guarding, healing

Garden Use - Japanese barberry is often used to decorate pools, rocks, flowerbeds, and flower borders. It is a common shrub that is used to add ornamental value to a garden or landscape.



Prized for its visual appeal and its success as a hedge plant, because it is very dense and thorny, it can restrict unwanted visitors and keep animals in or out while also adding a bright splash of color. It does well in home, cottage, and woodland gardens and is often planted with Boxwood Shrubs, because the dark, glossy green complements the sharp red of the japanese barberry.

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Dusty Miller

Jacobaea maritima subsp. maritima

Dusty miller (Jacobaea maritima subsp. maritima) is an evergreen perennial plant native to the Mediterranean region. Another common name for dusty miller is silver ragwort. Dusty miller is widely used in ornamental horticulture because of its pleasing silvery look and texture.

The plant is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant for its white appearance and a similar texture to tomentose leaves. In horticulture, it is sometimes called dusty miller, a name that is shared with other plants with the same silvery tomentose leaves. 

Symbolism - Harvest

Maidenhair Vine

Muehlenbeckia complexa, Also known as: Lacy wire vine, Wire vine, Necklace vine, Mattress wire weed, Wiggy bush. Maidenhair vine (Muehlenbeckia complexa) is a semi-deciduous vine that can grow to 4.5 m if it is given suitable supports on which to climb. However, it is most commonly grown as a houseplant. Maidenhair vine provides interesting ground cover.

Symbolism - Communicating mistrust and solitude


Garden Use - A resistant, versatile, climbing shrub, maidenhair vine can have various uses in the garden and tolerate almost any position. It can be used as a twinning climber, ground cover, or for topiary or wall side borders within courtyard, city, or cottage gardens. Also, it is a good cover for banks and slopes. Because of its high salt tolerance, maidenhair vine can thrive in coastal gardens, even on the beach itself.

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Dragon's Blood

Phedimus spurius, Also known as: Two-row stonecrop, Creeping sedum

The dragon's blood is a low growing succulent with a maximum height of 10 cm. The flowers are star-shaped and appear during late spring through summer. They grow best with full sunlight but can survive with partial shade.


This Phedimus plant is closely related to Sedum plants. It is also a succulent plant and it often grows strongly in rocky gardens. Besides that, it is a good groundcover plant. As it is originated from the Caucasian region, it is called Caucasian stonecrop.


Garden Use - You will most often see dragon's blood used as a groundcover because it spreads so easily. This succulent has good drought tolerance, so it is also a common choice in rock gardens and xeriscaped gardens. Place different variants in the same garden for a pleasing color contrast, or add Hens and chicks or Lambsears.

Garden Strawberry

Fragaria ananassa, The garden strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) is an edible plant species. Each plant produces a quart of strawberries during the growing season. The garden strawberry fruit becomes ripe during the early spring and summer months. The garden strawberry was first cultivated during the middle of the eighteenth century in France. It’s a hybrid between a North American strawberry (F. virginiana) and a Chilean strawberry (F. chiloensis).


The exact etymology of the Strawberry name is still unclear. According to some sources, the name is related to the fact that strawberries are often mulched with straw. According to others, the name is related to the corrupted word "strew", which refers to the plant's runners. However, garden strawberry is the most famous variety of strawberry, widely cultivated in gardens.

Symbolism - Love at first sight


Garden Use - Garden strawberry is mostly cultivated in kitchen gardens for the sweet flavorsome fruits it produces during the summer. Its rosette-like blooms in the spring can also add beauty to the garden. It can also be grown in containers or hanging baskets, attracting a variety of pollinators.


Wild Celery

Apium graveolens, Also known as: Celery, Wild celery (Apium graveolens) is an herbaceous plant that can be found growing throughout Europe, North America, and Asia. It is a popular edible crop that is often harvested for agricultural purposes, yielding the common vegetable known simply as celery. Wild celery leaves have been found in an Egyptian pharaoh's tomb, although experts believe that it grew naturally and are not sure if it was farmed and cultivated at the time.

First attested in English in 1664, the word "celery" derives from the French céleri and in turn from Italian seleri or selero in the plural, which comes from late latin selinon. As it grows in the wild, it is also called wild celery.

Symbolism - Mental powers, Lust, Psychic Powers


Garden Use - Wild celery is a popular plant in annual gardens prized for its edible stalk. It is an essential plant in vegetable gardens and is commonly grown with carrots, tomatoes, cucumbers, and melons. In herb gardens, it grows well with mint, rosemary, and sage, providing an interesting visual texture.

Pineapple Weed

Matricaria discoidea, Also known as: Disc mayweed, Rayless mayweed. 

Pineapple weed (Matricaria discoidea) is a common weed with cute cone shape "flowers", which are actually composed of many tubular yellow-green small flowers. Its leaves give off a sweet smell when crushed. The scent is regarded as somewhere between that of pineapple and chamomile - thus the plant's common names.

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Pineapple Lily

Eucomis comosa, Also known as: Wine eucomis, Pineapple plant. 

Pineapple lily (Eucomis comosa) gets its common name from the arrangement of foliage reminiscent of pineapple leaves that sits atop its spiky stem. The genus name also comes from the tuft of foliage, but in this case the name compares it to a tuft of hair: "Eucomis" combines the Greek words “eu,” meaning good, and “kome,” meaning hair. This plant is indigenous to South Africa.

Garden Use - The blossoms of pineapple lily provide an excellent source of food for bees, butterflies, and other garden pollinator insects in pollinator-friendly gardens. Before the plants bloom, they sends up an attractive green stalk, and after the blossoms fade, the purple seed pods continue to provide color. The bulbs can be planted in the ground or a container.

Garden Snapdragon

Antirrhinum majus, Also known as: Common snapdragon, Dragon plant.  The garden snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) is a flowering perennial that is commonly cultivated as an annual or biennial ornamental plant. When the throats of its flowers are squeezed together, its lips snap open like a dragon's mouth; this is the origin of the common name. The garden snapdragon's speedy cultivation and ease of pollination made it a good target for research, so it has now become a model organism for plant genetics studies.

Snapdragon, originates from the appearance that seems like the flowers' reaction to having their throats squeezed, which causes the "mouth" of the flower to snap open like a dragon's mouth. It is often planted in gardens, therefore it's widely known as the garden snapdragon.


Symbolism - strength, persistence, deviousness, grace under pressure


Garden Use - Garden snapdragon is most commonly clustered in flowerbeds and gardens. Popular for its bright, attractive flowers with their distinct dragon-snout shape, this plant is a mainstay in most traditional flower gardens and is used in patio containers, borders, and flower boxes. It is often planted with lower-growing flowers like lobelia and pansies for a satisfying height contrast.

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Lenten Rose

Helleborus orientalis. The lenten rose has been cultivated since the Germans began to do so in the mid-1800s, with varieties being created in the United Kingdom shortly after. Between the 1920s and 1960s, there was little interest in its cultivation until Helen Ballard bred new varieties. They bloom early in the year hence they get their name of "Lenten rose".

The common name of this plant is inspired by its flowering time. It often blossoms during Lent which is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar. It seems as it blooms for this festival, so it is called Lenten rose.

Symbolism - serenity, tranquility peace, scandal, anxiety. 


Garden Use - Lenten rose (Helleborus orientalis) is a popular cottage garden plant that is prized for its winter or early spring flowers. These pink blossoms look best when grouped together and can be grown in the shady parts of your garden. Great color contrasts are provided when you grow these with hostas, bleeding hearts, or columbines.


Lenten rose poisoning can occur through consumption (including ingesting contaminated dairy products) or direct handling of the plant. It contains chemicals that cause a slowing of the heart rate and extreme lethargy. Side effects from ingestion include gastrointestinal issues (vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, excess

Evergreen Candytuft

Iberis sempervirens, Also known as: Perennial candytuft, Garrex's Candytuft

Evergreen candytuft (Iberis sempervirens) is a flowering plant native to southern Europe. The Latin name Iberis sempervirens refers to the plants appearance and means "always green." evergreen candytuft is popular in gardens due to the aesthetic value of its blossoms.


The species is often used as an ornamental shrub because of the decorative flowers. The name Iberis is inspired because of the fact that many members of the genus come from the Iberian Peninsula in southwest Europe. Sempervirens means "always green", referring to the evergreen foliage. 

Symbolism - Indifference, Sweetness and beauty

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Garden Use - Evergreen candytuft holds its own in gardens with a lot of sun and well-drained soils. Use it as an edging or border plant, or in a rock garden or raised bed where it can spill over edges and soften harsh geometric lines with its fine textured foliage. Cornflower, Basket-of-gold, or Creeping phlox are colorful companions.

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Krinkled White & Chinese Peony  

Paeonia lactiflora, Also known as: Fragrant peony. Chinese peony is a perennial herbaceous bushy plant native to central and eastern Asia. It is highly regarded for its lush, white, pink, or crimson rose-like flowers, with pronounced yellow stamens. White chinese peony was first introduced to England in the mid-18th century, and today there are several hundred cultivars common in temperate gardens around the world.


As an ornamental plant, it happens to have up to hundreds of different species varying in color, size and appearance. Any of the varieties add beauty to any garden. Considering it is commonly planted in gardens, it is called the common garden peony. Interestingly, the word “peony” is derived from the Latin name “paeonia”.

Symbolism - Have a heart, beautiful and moving, reluctant, inseparable, honor, good fortune


Artistic Value - The Chinese peony is one of the ten famous flowers in China, and is often used as the theme of painting and poetry.


Garden Use - Chinese peony is one of the most common perennial flowers, found in gardens across temperate climates. Chinese peony is renowned for its large, showy flowers and beautiful array of colors. Its strong stem makes it great as a cut flower, and the wide variety of cultivars make for great borders, specimen plants, cottage or urban gardens, and more. It works well with alliums, roses, and bearded irises.

Italian Clematis

Clematis viticella, Also known as: Purple clematis, Italian leather flower. 

Italian leather flower (Clematis viticella) is a climbing herbaceous perennial native to Europe. It has showy flowers and long blooming time, which makes it an excellent addition to flower gardens. There are many varieties available, with a variety of different flower shapes and colors.


This plant is called an Italian leather flower not because of its ability to extract material for leather, it is due to its succulent petals having a leathery feel. As Italy is one of the most famous places for leather, it's called an Italian leather flower.


Virgin's bower, Most people accept that it was named after Queen Elizabeth I, who was known as the ‘Virgin Queen’. Plants of Clematis viticella, the species that was found growing wild in Spain, were bought over to England during her reign. It is said that it is named in honour of the queen, so it's called virgin's bower.


Symbolism - Artifice, ingenuity, wisdom, travel, mischief, royalty, high aspirations


Garden Use - Italian leather flower (Clematis viticella) is a hugely popular climbing shrub that rewards gardeners with showy flowers that attract butterflies and hummingbirds in summer and fall. The plant climbs well on walls, houses, fences, and trellises, decorating them with great color and interest. This plant is a great fit in city and courtyard gardens and is almost a requisite for cottage and traditional gardens. Italian leather flower partners well with many species including roses, grasses, and vegetables that need shade.

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Creeping Phlox

Phlox subulata, Also known as: Moss pink, Britton's phlox. Creeping phlox (Phlox subulata) is a flowering plant native to the United States. The Latin name Phlox subulata means needle-shaped, which describes its leaves. Creeping phlox is sometimes confused with marijuana due to its similar smell.


Phlox from Ancient Greek, meaning "flame", is often mistaken by the smell of cannabis. The plant grows by spreading through stolons and easily forms a cushion-like thick layer on the grass, so it is called creeping phlox.

Symbolism - Maternal love, Charity, complicity, understanding


Garden Use - The glorious and abundant flowers of creeping phlox (Phlox subulata) make it a valued garden addition. The spreading mat-forming shape of this evergreen plant makes it an ideal choice for adding year-round interest in rock gardens and as ground cover. The plant's flowers are great attractors of butterflies. Grow in informal or cottage gardens beside rock cress, basket-of-gold, and heartleaf bergenia.

Bearded Iiris

Iris germanica, Also known as: German iris, Rhizomatous iris.  The bearded iris is a flowering plant that appears in many different colors. It is a popular garden plant because it's easy to grow. Though their native lands are in Europe, bearded irises are often grown in Iranian cemeteries.


If you happen to see this plant, you will be amazed with the beauty of the flowers. Each of its flowers consists of 6 petals with 3 of it growing upwards while the other 3 petals grow downwards. Usually, the color of the flower petals that are growing upwards differs from the ones growing the other direction. Especially the petals that are going downward, they are separately featured with a layer of brush-like or beard-like fur in the middle. In fact, the purpose of this feature is to attract insects to gather its nectar. As the flowers look very similar to a beard, it is called Bearded iris.

Symbolism - Faith, Valor, Wisdom, Hope, Trust

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Garden Use - As one of the most common perennials found in garden beds, the bearded iris is beloved for its lush petals that come in a rainbow of colors. These flowers need ample space and sunlight to grow, so they are typically grown in a clump as a standalone specimen. Bearded iris is beautiful and easy to grow, so it's found in all types of gardens, from cottage style to urban flower beds. It works well in combination with oriental poppies, alliums, and salvias.


Common Primrose

Primula acaulis, Common primrose is a welcome sight in an early spring landscape. The vibrant colors of the flowers and a light, delicate scent make the common primrose a favorite. This plant provides vibrant color to any container or flowerbed, with hues available in yellow, pink, purple, blue, orange, red, white and bi-color.


The botanical name holds the same meaning as the common name primrose. It is derived from a late Latin word "prima rosa", consisting of prima meaning "first" and rosa meaning "rose". The specific epithet vulgaris means "common", so it is called common primrose.


Symbolism - The First, Prime, Early Youth, Early Love

Oregon Lupine & Garden Lupine

While it is cultivated as a garden flower in many places, the garden lupine is considered an invasive species in others. As a garden plant, the garden lupine is commonly used to attract bees and retain nitrogen in the soil. But in New Zealand, Argentina, and various countries in Europe, garden lupine are grown invasively and causing many ecological problems.

Garden lupine - With its design and color, its unique flower design makes it the garden favorite. In fact, lupine is derived from the genus name, Lupinus in which it comes from the latin word for "wolf". Interestingly, the genus name comes with an ancient belief that lupines ruined the fertility aspect of the soil. With the combination of being the garden favorite and ancient belief, it is then called garden lupine.


Symbolism - Happiness, creativity, imagination

Image by Elly Kelders

Garden Use - Garden lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus) is an integral fixture of many informal and cottage gardens offering showy spring color with its spears of blue flowers. These flowers are especially striking when grown with differently-colored late spring flowers. Garden lupine is a low-maintenance plant that is a great way to attract hummingbirds and butterflies to your garden. It partners well with alliums, lilacs, and avens.

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Leafy Spurge

Euphorbia esula, Also known as: Hungarian spurge, Faitour's grass.  Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is a perennial that will grow to 91 cm tall. It is an aggressive, persistent plant with deep roots. It reproduces rapidly through its spreading roots and its abundant seed production. The flowers are yellowish-green clusters enclosed in yellow-green bracts. It produces a milky secretion that can irritate the skin and is poisonous to some animals.


Symbolism - Purity, protection and wisdom

Fragrant Plantain Lily

Hosta plantaginea, The trademark feature of Asia-native plantain lilies is the numerous glossy oval leaves with deep parallel veins. The fragrant plantain lily is additionally decorated with strongly fragrant, trumpet-shaped, large white flowers, which are unique in the genus. Hosta plantaginea is one of the favorite cultivated plants for north-facing and shady gardens, but it also tolerates high humidity and temperatures.


Its leaves are similar to Plantago. Not only are they symmetrical from left to right, but even the parallel-striped veins on its leaves are orderly. The plant can give off a good fragrance, and its flowers are white and shaped like lilies, so it is called the Fragrant Plantain Lily.

Symbolism - A refined person, devotion, friendship

Image by Jessica Johnston

Artistic Value - There are many poems praising the scented hosta in China.


Garden Use - Fragrant plantain lily is a herbaceous perennial commonly found in tropical gardens. It is prized for its fragrant flowers and unique, lined foliage. Its shade-loving growth habit makes it suitable for ground cover beneath tall shrubs and trees. Fragrant plantain lily is appropriate for pollinator and cottage-style gardens. Suggested companion plants include Bleeding Heart or Coral Bells to make strong color contrasts.

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Chocolate Mint

Mentha aquatica, Also known as: Water mint, Fish mint. 

Water mint (Mentha aquatica) is a perennial herb native to Europe and southwest Asia. Water mint is used to make tea. It can also be used to make cologne. The bergamot mint is considered to be a variety of Mentha aquatica.


As the name suggests, water mint appears in the shallow channels of streams, rivers, pools. If the plant grows in the water itself, it floats above the surface of the water. Since it is also part of the Mentha genus, it is called water mint. 


Symbolism - Virtue, Protection (from Illness), Warmth of Feeling, Money.


Garden Use - The aromatic water mint is perfect alongside ponds or in persistently moist soil. It attracts wildlife whilst adding fragrance and color to the garden landscape. Horticulturalists do not just use this plant for its aesthetic, but it is known to improve soil and pond water quality.


Mentha spicata, Also known as: Common mint, Menthol mint. Spearmint is a member of the mint family and is a common flavor in breath mints and gum. The leaves of spearmint are edible and can be added to salads, smoothies, certain desserts, and even as a flavoring agent for water.


The plant dates back at least to the first century A.D. and is also recorded in the Bible. During the American Revolution, it became an important cash crop in Connecticut. The name 'spear' mint derives from the pointed leaf tips and it is also a mint plant. So, it is called Spearmint.


Symbolism - Hope to meet you again, warm feelings, money.


Garden Use - Spearmint (Mentha spicata) is a feature of many herb gardens where it is grown as a culinary herb. The plant's white flowers are of secondary interest but are nevertheless attractive to look at and inviting to bees. The plant is vigorous and very hardy, and extremely easy to grow, particularly with herbs and vegetables like tomatoes, sage, and thyme. It also makes a great addition to cottage, informal, and wildlife gardens.


Red Raspberry

Rubus idaeus, Also known as: Black-Haired Red Raspberry, Smoothleaf Red Raspberry, American red raspberry, Wild red raspberry. Red raspberry is a perennial forest shrub with elongated, thorny stems. The stems grow rapidly during their first year and bloom in their second year. The plant produces small, aggregate fruit that has a distinct aroma and a sweet-and-sour taste. Raspberry cultivars are hybrids between this red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and the American species R. strigosus.


The word “raspberry” is derived from “raspise”, from the mid-15th century meaning a sweet rose-colored wine. It is also derived from the Anglo-Latin name “vinum raspeys”. Furthermore, it is also derived from the word “raspoie” from the Germanic origin meaning “thicket”. According to the Anglo-Saxon language, its name means “rough berry”, which might be influenced by its rough appearance. Before it matures, the berries appear to have an outer layer of bristles which then becomes bumpy when it is fully mature. The berries also turn bright red once it matures. Based on this characteristic, it is often called the red raspberry.

Symbolism - Resistance, kindness, healing, protection

Garden Use - Red raspberry is a perennial shrub commonly found in gardens. It is prized for its deep green foliage, pretty blossoms, and 'fuzzy' fruit. Its prickly leaves and thorns make it suitable as a barrier and the free-standing shrubs can serve as screens. Red raspberry is appropriate for Pollinator gardens. Plant with Rosemary or Mint to deter unwanted pests.

Oregon Blackberry

Rubus armeniacus, Also known as: Himalayan blackberry, Armenian blackberry.  Himalayan blackberry produces tasty berries at the peak of the season, but its bounty is offset somewhat by its drawbacks. The canes are covered in aggressive thorns and create impassable thickets. The plant itself is considered a noxious weed in some areas due to its fast-spreading behavior.

Luther Burbank is the kind of person who loves to do experiments and cultivate new species. Burbank traded seeds with fellow collectors from around the world. In a package from India, he found seeds for a huge blackberry with a stronger flavor. Burbank named it the Himalaya Giant even though it's actually believed to be originated from Armenia. In the twentieth century, people have called it the Himalayan blackberry and go on to further cultivate the plant.


Symbolism - Healing, Money, Protection.


Garden Use - Himalayan blackberry is a trailing shrub that can be trained for trellises and to conceal unwanted fencing, creating a pollinator-attracting border or hedge. It has been listed as invasive in some parts of the USA, so check local laws and by-laws before installing it in your garden.



Cytisus scoparius, Also known as: Spanish Broom, Yellow broom, Common broom

Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) is a perennial shrub that commonly grows in Europe. Scotch broom is also referred to as the "common broom." The plants grow in sunny areas in dry soil and can withstand acidic soil conditions. In Italian folklore, scotch broom was burned to stop witches. Scotch broom was a historical symbol of French king Charles VI.

Cytisus scoparius, is a perennial leguminous shrub that is native to western and central Europe. In Britain and Ireland, the standard name for the plant is broom, but this name is also used for other species of the Genisteae tribe. In other English-speaking countries, the most prevalent common name is Scotch broom or Scot's broom. Furthermore, it is known as an English broom in Australia. Moreover, it was brought to United States from the British Isles and central Europe to serve as an ornamental plant and erosion control. 

Symbolism - Humility, Neatness


Garden Use - Although in many areas it is considered invasive, scotch broom has some valuable uses in the garden. Where hardy, it can provide some winter foliage and color. Additionally, it is known for being useful on slopes or in poor, loose soil for erosion control. With similar uses, Heather, Shrub rose, and Ceanothus make good companion plants.


Nepeta cataria, Also known as: Catwort. Nepeta cataria is a herbaceous perennial plant commonly cultivated as a garden herb called catnip. It is commonly used to flavor herbal teas, juices, and soups. Catnip is widely known for its peculiar behavioral effect on cats, so people commonly use it as a toy stuffer or treat for their feline pets.


The leaves of the plant are wrinkled like mint leaves, but its odor can affect cat behavior. It attracts about two-thirds of cats strongly. This does not only affect domestic cats, but it also affects cat species like lions, tigers and others strongly. So it is called catmint.


Symbolism - Love, happiness, fertility


Garden Use - Catnip (Nepeta cataria) is intensely aromatic, has interesting leaves, and pretty white flowers. It is best to grow this plant close to patios, or beside paths and walkways where its unique aroma can be appreciated. Catnip grows well with vegetables like radishes, beetroot, pumpkins, and tomatoes. It is a common bedding and border plant in Mediterranean, informal, and cottage gardens.

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